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在家教育研究专家布莱恩-雷推广与儿童虐待和致死有关的书籍

阅读本文大约需要: 10 分钟

按:教了一周的密集课程,《以赛亚书》,实在是疲惫劳累不堪。下午小睡了一会儿,但晚餐之后再次在沙发上睡着了。醒来已经9点过,安排孩子们睡觉之后,有点时间按照昨日的承诺翻译这篇文章。
我的立场有三点:
1. 我们家现在采用在家教育,使用SonLight方案。我并不反对在家教育这种方案,也有朋友采用在家教育,孩子已经健康成年(比如《山友》一书中的Anna 和Niels都是在家教育出来的孩子,pre-SAT的成绩足以拿到世界排名前100的大学全奖)。
2. 我的翻译和指向,总是在讨论美国的事件。我相信,信息的沟通,可以让国内的实践更稳妥。我们没有必要走人家已经走过的老路,踩同样的雷。但我也听说过国内同样的案例。
3. 正在连载的《在家教育25问》一书,里面多处提及这位Ray博士的研究结论。所以,我的朋友Dan为我做了一点背景调查。


Homeschool Researcher Brian D. Ray Promotes Books Linked to Child Abuse, Deaths

Published by R.L. Stollar

6-7 minutes


Brian D. Ray is probably the most well-known researcher on homeschooling outcomes. He founded the National Home Education Research Institute (NHERI) in 1990 as a partner to the Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA), the most prominent homeschool lobbying organization in the United States as well as an essential force in the Religious Right. Ray’s research through NHERI was and is specifically for activism, not academia: it was used, and continues to be used, to buttress HSLDA’s efforts across all fifty states to completely deregulate homeschooling. Indeed, some have called NHERI merely a “research arm” of HSLDA, which is quite an accurate description—though Ray takes great pains to try to deny NHERI’s association with HSLDA.

布莱恩-D-雷可能是最知名的在家教育成果研究者。他于1990年成立了全国在家教育研究所(National Home Education Research Institute,NHERI),作为在家教育合法辩护协会(Home School Legal Defense Association,HSLDA)的合作伙伴。在家教育合法辩护协会是美国最著名的在家教育游说组织,也是宗教右翼的一股重要力量。无论过去还是现在,雷通过NHERI发布的研究成果都是为了推广在家教育活动,而不是致力于学术研究: HSLDA希望全美所有50个州全面放松对“在家教育”管制,而雷的所谓研究成果正是HSLDA常常引用并将继续引用的支持性证据。事实上,有些人准确地称NHERI为HSLDA的”研究部门”,尽管雷不遗余力地试图否认NHERI与HSLDA的关系。

While Ray’s research has received repeated criticism from academics due to its cherrypicking nature and methodological problems, less attention has been given to Ray himself. Ray is no neutral academic trying to let the evidence about homeschooling lead wherever it may. He is, rather, a far-right extremist who uses his research on homeschooling to engage in cultural warfare and advance the vision of Christian Nationalism that so many Christian homeschoolers adhere to. A proponent of the Quiverfull and Christian Patriarchy ideologies popular in Christian homeschooling, Ray is a homeschooling parent himself who homeschooled all eight of his children on a secluded farm in a conservative enclave in western Oregon.

虽然雷的研究因其选择性过滤数据和方法论问题而一再受到学术界的批评,但人们对雷本人的关注却较少。雷不是一个中立的学者,按照学术规范研究在家教育,让证据来说话。相反,他是一个右翼极端分子,利用他对在家教育的研究来参与文化战争,推进许多基督教在家教育者所坚持的基督教民族主义愿景。雷是基督教在家教育中流行的“箭袋神学”运动和基督教父权制意识形态的支持者,他自己也是一位在家教育家长,在俄勒冈州西部一个保守派聚居区的隐蔽农场里在家教育自己的8个孩子。

Since at least 2005, and as recently as 2015, Ray has promoted books by evangelical “child training” experts that have been linked to numerous cases of child abuse and even deaths. These books encourage beating infants as young as a few months old, treating children like animals, and disobeying, circumventing, and abolishing child protection laws. Such books include: To Train Up A Child by Michael and Debi Pearl; What the Bible Says About… Child Training by J. Richard Fugate; Shepherding a Child’s Heart by Tedd Tripp; and The Way Home by Mary Pride. Ray has encouraged homeschooling families to buy these books as far back as 2005. That year Ray published his book Worldwide Guide to Homeschooling. In that book, Ray urges parents to read the Pearls, Fugate, and Pride. Here’s an excerpt:

至少从2005年开始,最近的一次是在2015年,雷开始推广福音派”儿童训练”专家的书籍——这些书籍与许多虐待甚至致死儿童的案件有关。这些书提倡体罚儿童(甚至鼓励体罚仅几个月大的婴儿),像对待动物一样对待孩子,以及不服从、规避和废除儿童保护法。这类书籍包括:迈克尔和黛比-珀尔(Michael and Debi Pearl)的《优秀是这样训练出来的》(To Train Up A Child);理查德-福格特(J. Richard Fugate)的《圣经如何训练孩童》(What the Bible Says About Child Training);泰德崔普(Tedd Tripp)的《子女心,父母情》(Shepherding a Child’s Heart);以及玛丽-普雷德(Mary Pride)的《回家的路》(The Way Home)。早在2005年,雷就开始鼓励在家教育家庭购买这些书。那一年,雷出版了他的《全球在家教育指南》。在那本书中,雷敦促父母阅读珀尔、福格特和普雷德的书籍。下面的截图摘自雷的书:

Since 2005, of course, much has changed in the homeschooling world. Many homeschool alumni—dubbed “homeschool apostates”—have now spoken out about the widespread child abuse and neglect they experienced. Through websites like Homeschoolers Anonymous, Homeschooling’s Invisible Children, Recovering Grace, and the Coalition for Responsible Home Education, homeschool alumni shared their stories and urged the homeschooling world to change, to place children’s interests above parents’ selfish desires to “train up” their children into their mini-me’s. 当然,自2005年以来,在家教育的世界已经发生了很大变化。许多在家教育的毕业生自称为”在家教育的离教者”,现在已经开始说出他们所经历的广泛儿童虐待和忽视。通过”匿名在家教育者“、”家教的隐形儿童“、”恢复恩典“和”负责的在家教育联盟“等网站,在家教育的毕业生们分享了他们的故事,并敦促在家教育领域做出改变,将孩子的利益置于父母”培养”孩子成为他们自私小我的愿望之上。

Part of what these websites revealed was the extent to which books by evangelical “child training” experts have been used by abusive parents to justify their mistreatment of their children. It is unsurprising, then, that over half of homeschool alumni surveyed in a 2014 study say they experienced abuse and an additional quarter report knowing another homeschooler who was abused. 这些网站有一些内容揭示,福音派”儿童训练”专家的书籍在很多时候被施暴的父母用来为其虐待子女的行为辩护。因此,毫不奇怪,在2014年的一项研究中,超过一半的受访在家教育学生自述受过虐待,另有四分之一的人报告说,他们认识其他受过虐待的在家教育学生。

Increasing the visibility of these alumni’s voices were high-profile child abuse and death cases linked to the very books Ray has promoted and continues to promote. The case of Hana Williams, for example, revealed how the cruel practices promoted by Michael and Debi Pearl in To Train Up A Child encouraged the Williams parents to murder the 13-year-old Hana. 更引人注目的是,雷所宣传并继续宣传的书籍,与一些引起公众广泛关注虐待和致死儿童案件有关。例如,哈娜-威廉姆斯(Hana Williams)一案揭露了迈克尔和黛比-珀尔(Michael and Debi Pearl)在《优秀是这样训练出来的》中所提倡的残酷做法,如何鼓励威廉姆斯的父母谋杀了13岁的哈娜。

Hana is far from being the only child abused or killed by Christian homeschooling parents following the practices taught by the Pearls, Fugate, Tripp, and Pride. There’s little Sean Paddock. There’s poor Lydia Schatz. And so many others. 哈娜远不是唯一一个被基督教在家教育父母按照珀尔、福格特、泰德崔普和玛丽-普雷德所教导的做法虐待或杀害的孩子。除了哈娜,还有小肖恩-帕多克,可怜的莉迪亚-沙茨,以及其他许许多多的人。

Despite these horrific cases, however, Ray continues to promote the books linked them. As recently as 2015, Ray was encouraging homeschooling parents to buy these same books. The following is an image from a 2015 speech entitled “Nurture and Admonition— Not Pain and Provocation” that he gave at an Arizona Families for Home Education conference. You will notice that Ray is still promoting Fugate, Tripp, and the Pearls: 尽管有这些可怕的案例,雷仍在继续推广与之相关的书籍。就在最近的2015年,雷还在鼓励在家教育父母购买同样的书籍。以下是2015年他在亚利桑那州在家教育会议上发表的题为”培养和惩戒——并非痛苦和挑衅”的演讲时的图片。你会注意到,雷仍然在宣传福格特、泰德崔普和珀尔的书。

Ray’s promotion of these books is, unfortunately, unsurprising, considering that Ray himself participated in the 2009 Men’s Leadership Summit on homeschooling. He and others at the Summit articulated a clear vision for homeschooling’s future that included the complete dismantling of the United States’s child protection system. Doug Phillips, a former HSLDA attorney, stated at the Summit, for example, that “the core problem with Child Protective Services is its existence” and that we should aim for “eliminating it altogether.” 不幸的是,考虑到雷本人参加了2009年关于在家教育领域的男性领导人峰会,雷对这些书的宣传并不令人惊讶。他和峰会上的其他人对在家教育的未来提出了明确的愿景,其中包括彻底废除美国的儿童保护系统。例如,前HSLDA的律师道格-菲利普斯(Doug Phillips)在峰会上说,”儿童保护服务(Child Protective Services)的核心问题是它居然存在”,我们的目标应该是”完全废除它”。

This sentiment against child protection is front and center in one of the books Ray recommends, Fugate’s book, What the Bible Says About… Child Training. There, Fugate argues that that “child advocacy agencies and child abuse laws” are unbiblical because “there is no such thing as ‘child rights’ sanctioned by the Word of God.” Instead of allowing government to intervene on behalf of abused children, Fugate believes children should instead consider their abuse to be God “preparing such a child to glorify Himself through suffering.” 这种反对儿童保护的论调在雷推荐的一本书中占据了中心位置,即,福格特的《圣经如何训练孩童》。在书中,福格特认为,”儿童权益保护机构和虐待儿童的法律 “是不符合圣经的,因为”神的话语并不承认’儿童权利’这回事。” 与其让政府代表受虐待的儿童进行干预,福格特认为儿童应该父母的虐待看作是上帝”在预备这样的孩子,通过痛苦来荣耀他自己”。

This is not only a horrific message to send to child abuse survivors, it is also illegal, considering mandatory reporting laws in many states. It is beyond time that the Christian Homeschooling Movement takes Brian D. Ray to task for continuing to promote books linked to so many cases of child abuse and deaths.考虑到许多州都通过了儿童虐待强制报告法,这一论调不仅是向受虐儿童幸存者发出的可怕信息,也是非法的。现在是基督教在家教育运动追究布莱恩-D-雷责任的时候了,因为他还在继续推广这些与大量儿童受虐和死亡案件有关的书籍。

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