误译的出现和原因 |接受无知还是接受错误?

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免责声明:福音联盟是我的重要事工资源站点,里面有我许多的朋友。本文不是为了贬低这项非常出色的事工,存粹探讨一个严肃的神学翻译问题,顺手拿到我最常阅读的文本举例。若有不适,请及时停止阅读,并入院就诊。地点:若水漫海小将动物园同款。

按:本文发布后一小时内,从善如流的福音联盟已经修改下列各处译文,此处的讨论已经成为历史遗迹,不代表现在的状况和批评。有机会再表演福音联盟中文网站的谦卑温柔态度。

因此,请对照福音联盟的新版译文,来探讨圣经译本的几个技术问题,无需顾及最后的结论。


2016年,福音联盟发表过讨论ESV的文章,今天(2019)看到中文翻译发布在福音联盟中文网站上。作为一位资深有色金属摇滚发烧友,赶紧拜读了一下,看到9个关于ESV的知识点。第一点就让我生疑:

第一,出版ESV圣经的想法始于1990年代初。非盈利出版机构十架路出版社(Crossway)的主席雷尼·T·丹尼斯(Lane T. Dennis)与多位基督徒学者和牧师都谈到了新圣经翻译版本的需要。近十年后,翻译委员会开始投入工作。ESV圣经出版于2001年,2007、2011与2016年分别发布了带有几处细微修改的版本。

1990年代初规划,10年后开工,2001年出版,难道ESV不需要翻译时间?于是找来原文对照,如下:

The idea for the ESV Bible originated in the early 1990s when Lane T. Dennis, president of the nonprofit book publishing ministry Crossway, discussed the need for a new literal translation of the Bible with various Christian scholars and pastors. Near the end of the decade, the translation committee began work. The ESV was released in 2001, with minor revisions being released in 2007, 2011, and 2016.

简单的说,near the end of the decade,最好译为1990年代末,给委员会留下将近两年的操作时间比较好。但我又发现另一个错误,一个“神学”错误:

与多位基督徒学者和牧师都谈到了新圣经翻译版本的需要。

A new literal translation,并不是一个简单的需要译本的问题,而是需要一个literal的译本—你们懂的,后面有解释,也就是功能对等原则的译本。ESV是因应niv等采用其他原则的译本而构思的一本针对21世纪的功能对等译本,就像从前各个世纪的kjv,asv,rsv,nasb一样,为了不懂原文的读者尽可能严谨的考察原文的wording,也就是遣词造句的排布,而翻译的一个译本。这个译本希望继承kjv/rsv的传统,因为nasb比较是美国风情,对整个英语世界而言,不如kjv/rsv的源远流长。

于是,我对这篇讨论圣经翻译的翻译文献产生了些许兴趣,决定考察这关于esv的九点知识中,那些是误译,那些是比较合理的,为什么。我的结论如下:

  • 凡是涉及技术(这里是专门的圣经翻译领域),都有比较严重的错误。
  • 一般性描述,比如销量,金额,大体不错(有一个例外)。
  • 错误体现出领域知识的缺乏,进一步支持我关于神学翻译人才匮乏、训练不易的判断。

这篇文章1-4点,讨论技术特征的地方都有比较严重的错误。第一点,literal translation,神学术语没处理好,the decade的翻译不精确,引起一点误解。以下是其他几点的问题。原文在前,译文和评论在后。


2. The starting point for the ESV translation was the 1971 edition of the Revised Standard Version (RSV). Each word of the text was also checked against and based on the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible as found in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (2nd ed., 1983), on the Greek text in the 1993 editions of the Greek New Testament (4th corrected ed.), and Novum Testamentum Graece (27th ed.). Crossway adds that in “exceptional, difficult cases, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, and other sources were consulted to shed possible light on the text, or, if necessary, to support a divergence from the Masoretic text.”

第二,ESV译本基于1971年出版的英文修订标准版圣经(RSV)。翻译时,原文文本每个词句的旧约部分都和《斯图加特希伯来圣经 》(Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, 第二版,1983) 中马索拉旧约文本,新约部分和1993年版希腊文新约(第四次修订)中的希腊文本以及《奈斯特-阿兰特希腊文新约圣经》(Novum Testamentum Graece,第27版)相核对,并以之为基础。十架路出版社也把一些特例考虑在内:“对于特别难解的部分,以死海古卷、七十士译本、撒玛利亚五经、叙利亚别西大译本、拉丁文武加大译本,及其他资源为参考,给与文本光照,或者在可能的情况下,对马索拉本文中的分歧之处提供支持。”


starting point?

第二,ESV译本基于1971年出版的英文修订标准版圣经(RSV)。

这句话很奇怪。ESV是个英文译本,为何说它基于另一个英文版RSV?它是翻译还是复印?后面又说以马索拉文本以及SBL4,NA27为基础,这到底是什么意思?原文是starting point,其实是沿用asv对kjv的做法,或者rsv对asv的做法,尽量采用丁道尔-KJV传统的用词和短语。参见ESV前言:

———
To this end each word and phrase in the ESV has been carefully weighed against the original Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, to ensure the fullest accuracy and clarity and to avoid under-translating or overlooking any nuance of the original text. The words and phrases themselves grow out of the Tyndale–King James legacy, and most recently out of the RSV, with the 1971 RSV text providing the starting point for our work. Archaic language has been brought to current usage and significant corrections have been made in the translation of key texts. But throughout, our goal has been to retain the depth of meaning and enduring language that have made their indelible mark on the English-speaking world and have defined the life and doctrine of the church over the last four centuries.


divergence from?

对于特别难解的部分,以死海古卷、七十士译本、撒玛利亚五经、叙利亚别西大译本、拉丁文武加大译本,及其他资源为参考,给与文本光照,或者在可能的情况下,对马索拉本文中的分歧之处提供支持。”

上面这句话的原文是:Crossway adds that in “exceptional, difficult cases, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, and other sources were consulted to shed possible light on the text, or, if necessary, to support a divergence from the Masoretic text.”

divergence from的翻译错了,意思正好相反。应该大体是:ESV不遵照马索拉文本的地方,我们有很多文本证据来支持这种选择。


3. The three general philosophies of Bible translation philosophy are formal equivalence, functional equivalence, and optimal equivalence. As Dave Croteau has explained, formal equivalence (“word-for-word” translation) attempts to translate the Bible as literally as possible, keeping the sentence structure and idioms intact if possible (examples: NASB, KJV); functional equivalence (“thought-for-thought” translation) attempts to translate the text so it has the same effect on the current reader as it had on the ancient reader (example: NLT); and optimal equivalence falls between the former approaches by balancing the tension between accuracy and ease of reading. As an “essentially literal” translation, the ESV most closely aligns with a formal equivalent translation philosophy in that is “seeks as far as possible to capture the precise wording of the original text and the personal style of each Bible writer.”

第三,圣经翻译的三种翻译理念有:形式对等(formal equivalence)、功能对等(functional equivalence)和最佳对应(optimal equivalence)。就像戴夫·克罗托(Dave Croteau)曾解释的,形式对等(“字对字”直译)试图尽量按照字面意思翻译圣经,保持句子结构、习惯用语不变(例如:新美国标准版NASB,国王钦定版KJV);功能对等(意译)则试图让翻译的文本对今日的读者产生和古代读者同样的影响(例如,新生命译本NLT);“最佳对应”介于两者之间,在准确性和易读性的张力中保持平衡。作为一个“基本直译”的版本,ESV绝大部分采用了直译原则,“尽可能地抓住每个词原文的精义,同时符合圣经作者的个人风格。”

作为一个“基本直译”的版本,ESV绝大部分采用了直译原则,“尽可能地抓住每个词原文的精义,同时符合圣经作者的个人风格。”

capture the precise wording of the original text and the personal style of each Bible writer.

wording – 词序。不是说ESV想要抓住精义(那是每个译本的态度,不需要单独说明),而是作为一个形式对等译本,尽量追求原文的词序(wording)。


The translation was overseen by a 15-member Translation Oversight Committee (including TGC Council member R. Kent Hughes) and another team of more than 50 Translation Review Scholars (including TGC Council member Ray Ortlund).

第四,该译本有一个监督委员会(Translation Oversight Committee),该委员会由15位翻译监督委员组成(包括福音联盟成员肯特·休斯),另有超过50位学者进行翻译审阅(包括福音联盟成员雷·奥特伦)

董事会成员?concil member。成员很多,但董事会很小,谢摩丝就暂时进不去。


On the Christian Booksellers Association 2014 listing of top selling Bible translations, the ESV ranked fifth in dollar sales and fourth in unit sales. During the past 15 years, the ESV has distributed more than 100 million print copies as well as more than 100 million electronic copies.


第五,基督教书商协会(Christian Booksellers Association)在2014年发布了畅销圣经译本排行榜。ESV销售额排名第五,销售量排名第四。在过去的15年中,ESV发售了超过一亿的纸质版本和超过一亿的电子版本。


后面就基本翻译正确了。

总结:领域知识很重要。

这样一篇文章,主要想要教导的知识点,包括literal translation,formal equivalence,wording,ESV与Tyndale-KJV传统的关系等,读了此译文并没有增进任何知识,反而吸收了一堆错误知识,比如ESV用原文来捍卫马索拉文本与最佳文本的分歧,对ESV的产生原因、出版历史的解释也很模糊。

我仍然认为,我们需要更好神学训练的译者,否则流畅的语言反而会隐藏微妙的神学错误。至于为什么福音联盟中文网要翻译一篇esv的英文译本介绍文章,又采用一位不太了解圣经翻译领域的译者,译文关键地方存在技术性错误,对于汉语基督徒到底有何益处(害处),我还在思考之中。

继续为了跨文翻译明年的讲道学项目募款中…谢谢!

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