有几位可以翻译高难度注释的译者?

阅读本文大约需要: <1 分钟

今天有位相熟的朋友联系我,谈到这样一种可能:

翻译全套NICOT/NICNT

他问我有没有兴趣。这个问题不需要回答,因为,这可能是汉语神学翻译史上最大胆的翻译计划之一。我默默地估计了一下整个项目的字数。Dr. Dauglas Moo的“罗马书”一共1035页,有将近60万字(595541个英文单词)。而整套注释(现在还有几种没有出齐)有33,173页,按照罗马书的排版密度计算,一共是

33173 × 575 = 19,074,475

或者说,整个项目有1千9百万字。


简单谈一下我从事神学翻译的进路。

我的专业是研究“释经学”,希望更多的基督徒更好地理解神的话语,并应用在生活中。

在研究释经学的过程中,我发现:

  1. 欧美的释经方法不能照搬到汉语释经上,因为有些重要的语法分析工具(比如,机械分层),限于语言的特征,汉语实施有难度。因此,需要考虑处境化释经的方法论问题。
  2. 用英文释经所利用的大量词典、历史资料,特别是历史积累的各种各样注释书,在汉语释经的时候都很难利用,因为没有翻译为汉语。而以汉语写成的注释书,有深度或洞见的,真的不多。
  3. 除了面向平信徒的丁道尔圣经注释,技术性强的注释,比如NICOT/NICNT,WBC,以及原文注释的NIGNT等等,没有成套翻译出版的。

于是,我的进路就变成:

研究汉语的释经方法->确定方法所需要的工具书->将需要的工具书翻译成汉语->帮助汉语基督徒更好地理解神的话语。

可以说,一切的工作,都在为了这个目标而努力。


回过头来,讨论这样一个接近2千万字的项目,现在从事汉语神学翻译的译者中间,有多少人可以担当?

假设我们可以找到30位合格的译者,每个人每天翻译一页注释,那么大概3年可以做完这个项目。但是我的问题是,我们有30位合格的译者,可以准确地翻译NICOT/NICNT这种难度的注释吗?

我现在翻译F.F. Bruce的使徒行传(原文24万字),已经做到43%,时间是从今年1月1日开始算起的。按照目前的进度,一天3000个字,大概还有50个工作日可以完成。

但是我一开始做的时候,翻译前言就要死了。当时工作合同谈判有些问题,我就直接给客户说,这本书太难,如果能找到合适的译者,我就不做了。客户回答说,没有什么合适的译者了,还是你继续往下做吧。于是才成了现在的局面。

当然,我一向乐于接受语言难度较高的项目,因为只要做一阵子,即使Bruce这样50年代的英国绅士用语,也是有办法掌握熟练,项目做到15%以后,就可以保持全速运行了。


但是,翻译这卷注释书,对译者的基本要求是:

  1. 熟练掌握数种英文圣经(KJV,ASV,NIV,NASB等),每种至少读过1遍;

  2. 熟悉和合本圣经,一旦和英文对不上,需要自己翻译。不然注释的时候,就会有地方穿帮对不上号。

    比如,今天的例句中,天使说:“你的祷告和你的周济上达神面前,已蒙记念了。"

    这句话就是为了配合后面的注释,调整过译文的。

  3. 读过中英文的系统神学和历史神学著作,知道常用的神学术语。翻译的时候,如果遇到和合本的固定译法,在注释的文本中应当体现出来。比如,vision要翻译为“异象”(不是视野),heaven要翻译为“天国”(不是天堂),至于observances,自己去想吧,我也不知道。charity呢?你翻译成“周济”,而没有翻成别的什么“慈善事业”,“献爱心”吧?

  4. 有很好的中文功底,可以处理各种长句。

    比如:That the first Gentiles to hear and accept the gospel (like the Ethiopian eunuch and Cornelius) should be worshipers of the God of Israel is the more significant for the record of Acts because, as we shall see, it was such God-fearers who formed the nucleus of the Christian community in one city after another in the course of Paul’s missionary activity.

    这并不是最长的句子。不过究竟怎么翻译,我花了3分23秒才想出来一个初稿。

  5. 耐心和毅力,专注和每天坚持完成计划。仔细,敬畏的态度。

  6. 不管身处何处,有办法访问Google。否则,你找不到为什么哥尼流是一个常见罗马名字的缘故:“Cornelius was a specially common name in Rome ever since 82 B.C., when P. Cornelius Sulla emancipated 10,000 slaves who were enrolled in his own gens Cornelia.” 谁是P. Cornelius Sulla?gens Cornelia是什么意思?

  7. 懂一点希腊文和希伯来文。

  8. 掌握一种CAT工具。

看起来,需要接受过几年全英文神学训练,至少MA毕业,才可以一试。而按照我的经验,即使在北美一流的英文神学院拿到MDiv或ThM,也不见得就可以成为一个好的翻译。

有人是汉语表达不流畅,有人是缺少耐心,有人是更愿意和人打交道,不想和文字打交道。有人可能接受不了前期成长的痛苦。


我疑心诺大一个中国,数千万基督徒里,或许真的难以找到30位合格的译者,可以翻译好NICNT/NICOT的3万3千页技术性极强的注释。

我逼着Jean和Julie去啃17世纪的清教徒,就是希望可以训练出更多可以翻译技术性注释的译者来。为此,我还需要另外找些相对简单的项目给他们,让他们可以平衡地生活。

如果真的如此,我该叹气呢,还是继续祷告,希望神的灵充满某些有才华的年轻人,为汉语教会提供全套高质量的注释书?


明天讨论翻译速度问题。据说为橡树翻译了多种神学书籍的穆桑先生,看了我的数据,发出来一个天问:“你3小时可以做5000字?” 然后,就准备转行做牧师了。

我得赶紧用更多的数据劝劝他。


今日份的祝福:

耗时267 分钟
英文字数4119
中文字数7012
原文译文比7012/ 4119 = 1.7
翻译句数176
平均句长4119/ 176= 23.4
单句平均耗时267/ 176 = 1.52分钟

1. 百夫长哥尼流看见异象(10:1-8)

1 在凯撒利亚有一个人,名叫哥尼流,是意大利营的百夫长。 2 他是个虔诚人,他和全家都敬畏神,多多周济(犹太)百姓,常常祷告神。 3 有一天,约在九点钟,他在异象中明明看见神的一个使者进去,到他那里,说:“哥尼流。” 4 哥尼流定睛看他,惊怕说:“大人啊,什么事呢?” 天使说:“你的祷告和你的周济上达神面前,已蒙记念了。 5 现在你当打发人往约帕去,请那称呼彼得的西门来。 6 他住在海边一个硝皮匠西门的家里,房子在海边上。” 7 向他说话的天使去后,哥尼流叫了两个家人和常伺候他的一个虔诚兵来, 8 把这事都述说给他们听,就打发他们往约帕去。

1 The range of the apostolic message has been steadily broadened. Already it has begun to cross the barrier which separated Jews from Gentiles; now the time has come for that barrier to be crossed authoritatively by an apostle.

1 使徒所传之信息,每天都传播得越来越广,甚至已经跨过了分割犹太人和外邦人的隔阂;现在,是由使徒权威性地、正式打破这一隔阂的时候了。

The apostle who crossed it was Peter, the leader of the Twelve; the place where he crossed it was the largely Gentile city of Caesarea. The Gentiles who first heard the gospel from his lips were the family and friends of Cornelius, a centurion in the Roman army, belonging to one of the auxiliary cohorts stationed in Judaea.

而带头跨出第一步的人正是使徒彼得,十二门徒的领袖;他跨越文化壁垒的地点,正是大型的外邦城市该撒利亚。第一批从他口中亲耳听见福音的外邦人是哥尼流一家及其朋友;哥尼流是罗马的百夫长,属于驻扎在犹大的外籍营之一员。

The centurions who make their appearance in the New Testament record make a favorable impression. It is noteworthy that the first Gentile with whom Jesus had dealings during his public ministry (so far as we are informed) was a centurion stationed in Capernaum (possibly seconded from the Roman army to the security forces of Herod Antipas); it was with reference to this man’s faith that he is reported to have said, “many will come from east and west and sit at table with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 8:11). These words now began to find their fulfilment in another centurion.

在新约中出现的百夫长都给人留下了良好的印象。最著名的那位驻扎在迦百农的百夫长(可能是希律安提帕斯的保安部队的副指挥官),是耶稣在地上公开服事期间帮助的第一个外邦人;福音书作者记载说,正是提到此人的信心时,耶稣曾说,“从东从西,将有许多人来,在天国里与亚伯拉罕、以撒、雅各一同坐席”(太 8:11)。现在,这句话开始在另一位百夫长身上成就了。

A centurion was nominally in command of a hundred men: although his status was that of a noncommissioned officer, his responsibilities were more like those of a modern army captain. Centurions were the backbone of the Roman army. The historian Polybius sums up their necessary qualifications thus: “Centurions are required not to be bold and adventurous so much as good leaders, of steady and prudent mind, not prone to take the offensive or start fighting wantonly, but able when overwhelmed and hard-pressed to stand fast and die at their post.”

百夫长名义上可以统领一百人:尽管他的地位属于士官,其责任却更近于现代军队的上尉。百夫长乃是罗马军队的中坚力量。历史学家波利比乌斯曾总结过他们必备的品质:“百夫长不得像优秀的指挥官一样大胆冒险,而需要稳定审慎的性格;他不可轻易出击或胡乱挑启战端,但是当敌势难当、难以坚守时,能够死战不退,为国捐躯。”

Peter and Cornelius were each prepared by a visionary experience for their encounter. The whole narrative, which “bears the stamp both of probability and truth” (in Foakes-Jackson’s view), is of great importance not only because it tells how Peter used the keys of the kingdom to open a “door of faith” to Gentiles, but also because it introduces the questions of social intercourse between Jewish believers and Gentiles and of the admission of Gentile believers to the church without circumcision. These questions were later debated at the Council of Jerusalem, and the Cornelius episode was there adduced as a test case (15:7–9). Luke’s appreciation of the importance of the Cornelius episode is shown by the space he devotes to Peter’s rehearsal of his experience in 11:4–17, as well as by the repetition of salient features of the incident within the present narrative.

神为了预备彼得和哥尼流的碰面,事先传达给了每个人一个异象。整个故事,“混合着可能与真相”(按照福克斯-杰克逊〔Foakes-Jackson〕的看法),具有非常的重要性,不仅在于它讲述了彼得如何使用天国的钥匙开启了外邦人“信心之门”,而且还在于它引发了犹太信徒与犹太人社交的诸多问题,以及不经割礼就接纳外邦人信徒进入教会的问题。这些问题后来在耶路撒冷大公会议上引发了激烈争论,而哥尼流的案例被会议沿引,成为了定案的判例(15:7-9)。在11:4-17里,路加用了大量篇幅让彼得复述自己的经历,同时在当前的叙事中也不厌其烦地重复各个关键之处,清楚显示了路加对哥尼流一事的重视程度。

2 It is further important to observe that Cornelius, though a Gentile, was a worshiper of the God of Israel. Such Gentiles are commonly called “God-fearers”; while this is not a technical term, it is a convenient one to use. Many Gentiles of those days, while not prepared to become full converts to Judaism (the requirement of circumcision being a special stumbling block for men), were attracted by the simple monotheism of Jewish synagogue worship and by the ethical standards of the Jewish way of life.

2 更为重要的是,我们可以看到哥尼流尽管是外邦人,却在敬拜以色列的神。这样的外邦人通常被叫作“敬畏神的人”;尽管这还不算一个术语,但用起来十分方便。那时的许多外邦人,尽管不准备完全皈依犹太教(割礼的要求对于男人来说是个特别的障碍),但却被犹太会堂单纯的一神崇拜以及犹太生活方式的道德标准所吸引。

Some of them attended synagogue and became tolerably conversant with the prayers and scripture lessons, which they heard read in the Greek version; some observed with more or less scrupulosity such distinctive Jewish practices as sabbath observance and abstention from certain kinds of food (notably pork). Cornelius’s attachment to the Jewish religion appeared particularly in his regular prayer to the God of Israel and acts of charity to the people of Israel. One may say, indeed, that he had every qualification, short of circumcision, which could satisfy Jewish requirements.

他们中间有些人加入了犹太会堂,对祷告和用希腊文诵读的经课相当熟悉;有人多少持守一些犹太人独有的禁忌,比如守安息日,不吃某些种类的食物等等(最著名的食物禁忌是猪肉)。哥尼流与犹太宗教的联系,特别在于他常常向以色列的神祷告,周济以色列百姓。我们可以说,实际上除了割礼之外,他完全满足成为犹太人所需的每一样资格。

The Roman army had its own religious observances, officially prescribed for appointed days and carried out with the same routine punctiliousness as modern church parades, but utterly incapable of feeding men’s souls. Roman soldiers who felt the need to satisfy their religious hunger looked elsewhere—many to Mithraism; some, like Cornelius, to Judaism.

罗马军队有着自己的宗教仪式,正式指定了某些日子,并如同现代教会的游行仪式一样,每次都按照同样的程序进行,但终究无法喂养人的灵魂。罗马士兵为了满足自己在宗教上的饥渴,只好寻找别的方式——许多人加入了拜日教(密特拉教,Mithraism);另一些人,比如哥尼流,则加入了犹太教。

That the first Gentiles to hear and accept the gospel (like the Ethiopian eunuch and Cornelius) should be worshipers of the God of Israel is the more significant for the record of Acts because, as we shall see, it was such God-fearers who formed the nucleus of the Christian community in one city after another in the course of Paul’s missionary activity. Luke’s interest in them is such that one may wonder if he himself was not a God-fearing Gentile who believed the gospel when he heard it.

首先听见和接受福音的外邦人(就像埃塞俄比亚太监和哥尼流一样)应当是崇拜以色列神的敬虔之人,对于使徒行传的记载而言,这一点具有更为重要的意义,因为我们将会看到,正是这样一群敬畏神的人,在保罗宣教的过程中,在一个接一个的城市里构成了基督徒共同体的核心。路加对此保持着如此浓厚的兴趣,以至于若他本人不也是一位听见福音而信的、敬畏神的外邦人,我们倒会感到惊奇。


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