和合本翻译探讨——雅各书1:19

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翻译Hiebert的雅各书注释,遇到1章19节。这一节的第一个单词存在两个问题。

  1. 文本问题
  2. 解释问题

文本问题

【SBLGBT2】 19 ⸀Ἴστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. ἔστω ⸀δὲ πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ταχὺς εἰς τὸ ἀκοῦσαι, βραδὺς εἰς τὸ λαλῆσαι, βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν,
【TRa】 19 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοὶ, ἔστω πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ταχὺς εἰς τὸ ἀκοῦσαι, βραδὺς εἰς τὸ λαλῆσαι, βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν·

这个句子起首第一个单词,大多数当代的文本批评版本(SBL)认为是 Ἴστε,但是古典的西方教会标准文本(TR)采用了Ὥστε.

反映到KJV和ESV上,就是这样:

【ESV】19 Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger;
【KJV】 19 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath:

KJV采用TR为底本,Ὥστε是个连词,直接翻译为“因此(Wherefore)”,与第18节有关。
ESV,NASB,NIV等采用SBL为底本,Ἴστε是个动词,翻译为“Know, Understand”等等,与下面的命令有关。

这个文本问题,我基本上倾向于现代文本批评的底本,理由太复杂,就不说了。
和合本是根据TR和KJV来的,但是不知道为什么,翻译的时候有点摇摆,保留了“知道”,但是同时保留了与18节的联系,译为:

【和合本】 19 我亲爱的弟兄们,这是你们所知道的,但你们各人要快快的听,慢慢的说,慢慢的动怒,

这就有点量子力学了,难道那个词可以同时是ὭστεἼστε?我是对这种翻译比较着迷。不过,进一步分析可知,和合本和NASB居然一致:
【NASB】19 This you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger;
所以,这很可能是最佳的翻译方案!

修订和合本显然注意到这个问题,修改为:
【修订和合本】19 我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要明白:你们每一个人要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒,
这里的冒号是从了NIV,
【NIV】19 My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry,
采纳了SBL为底本。


解释问题

如果采用SBL, Ἴστε是一个罕见的动词形式,但是既可以是陈述语气,也可以是祈使语气(表示命令)。

所有新近的汉语译本,都采用了命令语气:
【汉语新译本】19 我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要知道,人人都应该快快地听,慢慢地说,慢一点动怒;
【当代圣经译本】19 我亲爱的弟兄姊妹,请记住:每个人都要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒。
【修订和合本】19 我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要明白:你们每一个人要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒,

但是,其实英文译本两种看法都有。
【ESV】19 Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger;
【NASB】19 This you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger;
【NIV】19 My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry,
【NLV】19 My Christian brothers, you know everyone should listen much and speak little. He should be slow to become angry.
【NLT】 19 Understand this, my dear brothers and sisters: You must all be quick to listen, slow to speak, and slow to get angry.

ESV, NIV, NLT采用了命令形式,而NASB和NLV则采用了陈述语气。


我不是希腊文法和底本考证的专家,只是随便分析现象而已。


附录:各种译文汇总

【和合本】 19 我亲爱的弟兄们,这是你们所知道的,但你们各人要快快的听,慢慢的说,慢慢的动怒,
【汉语新译本】19 我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要知道,人人都应该快快地听,慢慢地说,慢一点动怒;
【当代圣经译本】19 我亲爱的弟兄姊妹,请记住:每个人都要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒。
【修订和合本】19 我亲爱的弟兄们,你们要明白:你们每一个人要快快地听,慢慢地说,慢慢地动怒,

【ESV】19 Know this, my beloved brothers: let every person be quick to hear, slow to speak, slow to anger;
【KJV】 19 Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath:
【NASB】19 This you know, my beloved brethren. But everyone must be quick to hear, slow to speak and slow to anger;
【NIV】19 My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry,
【NLV】19 My Christian brothers, you know everyone should listen much and speak little. He should be slow to become angry.
【NLT】 19 Understand this, my dear brothers and sisters: You must all be quick to listen, slow to speak, and slow to get angry.

【SBLGBT2】 19 ⸀Ἴστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. ἔστω ⸀δὲ πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ταχὺς εἰς τὸ ἀκοῦσαι, βραδὺς εἰς τὸ λαλῆσαι, βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν,
【TRa】 19 Ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοὶ, ἔστω πᾶς ἄνθρωπος ταχὺς εἰς τὸ ἀκοῦσαι, βραδὺς εἰς τὸ λαλῆσαι, βραδὺς εἰς ὀργήν·