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压力——跨文化宣教的心理教育材料(3)

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一切改变都会带来压力。即使很小的压力,累积起来也会产生很明显的效果。Mayo Clinic 的科普文章说,压力带来的影响(或者,为了让我们更好受,我想更准确的说,人对压力的反应) 包括:

Common effects of stress on your body (身体)

  • Headache 头疼
  • Muscle tension or pain 肌肉紧张
  • Chest pain 胸痛
  • Fatigue 疲倦
  • Change in sex drive 性欲不足
  • Stomach upset 肚子不舒服
  • Sleep problems 睡眠问题

Common effects of stress on your mood (情绪)

  • Anxiety 焦虑
  • Restlessness 无法休息
  • Lack of motivation or focus 缺少动力或专注
  • Feeling overwhelmed 烦心事充满
  • Irritability or anger 易怒
  • Sadness or depression 悲伤或抑郁

Common effects of stress on your behavior (行为)

  • Overeating or undereating 反应过度或不足
  • Angry outbursts 暴怒
  • Drug or alcohol abuse (滥用药品、酗酒)
  • Tobacco use (抽烟)
  • Social withdrawal (社交恐惧)
  • Exercising less often (减少锻炼时间)

如果加上属灵的影响,压力会让人难以集中祷告,减少属灵训练的时间,怀疑,破坏人际关系,等等。


Holmes和Rahe(Holmes TH & Rahe, RH (1967) The Social Readjustment Scale, Journal of Psychomatic Research, 11, 213-218)有一个压力测试表。在课堂上,我们除了讨论一般的压力项(stressors)之外,也提到一些宣教士独有的压力项,必须学习一门新语言,使用一种新货币,倒时差,文化冲击等等。

STRESSFULNESS OF LIFE EVENTSEnter the number of  events in last 12 months
  
 Death of spouse (配偶死亡)100 
 Divorce (离婚)73 
 Marital separation (分居)65 
 Jail term (入狱)63 
 Death of close family member (except spouse) (亲人去世)63 
 Major personal injury or illness (受伤/生病)53 
 Marriage (结婚)50 
 Being fired from work (失业)47 
 Marital reconciliation (复婚)45 
 Retirement (退休)45 
 Change in health of family member (not self) (家人生病)44 
 Pregnancy (怀孕)40 
 Sex difficulties (性生活不和谐)39 
 Gain of new family member (家庭成员增加)39 
 Business readjustment (生意变化)39 
 Change in financial state (财务状态改变)38 
 Death of close friend (朋友去世)37 
 Change to different occupation (改换职业)36 
 Change in number of arguments with spouse (与配偶吵架的次数变了)35 
 Mortgage or loan over $180,000 (高额贷款)31 
 Foreclosure of mortgage or loan (提前还款完毕)30 
 Change in responsibilities at work (工作职责变化)29 
 Son or daughter leaving home (孩子成年离家自立)29 
 Trouble with in-laws (姻亲关系)29 
 Outstanding personal achievement (杰出的个人成就)28 
 Spouse begins or stops work (配偶停止或开始工作)26 
 Begin or end school (入学或毕业)26 
 Change in living conditions (生活条件改变)25 
 Change in personal habits (self or family) (个人习惯改变)24 
 Trouble with boss (与上司冲突)23 
 Change in work hours or conditions (工作时间和条件改变)20 
 Change in residence (搬家)20 
 Change in schools (转学)20 
 Change in recreation (更换娱乐方式)19 
 Change in church activities (换教会)19 
 Change in social activities (社交活动改变)18 
 Mortgage or loan less than $180,000 (小额房贷)17 
 Change in sleeping habits (睡眠习惯改变)16 
 Change in number of family get-togethers (家庭团聚次数改变)15 
 Change in eating habits (饮食习惯改变)13 
 Vacation (度假)13 
 Christmas (圣诞节)12 
 Minor violations of the law (轻微违法)11 
Learning or beginning to use a new language (学习和使用一门新语言)50 
Using different currency (使用不同货币)20 
Different educational experience (适应不同的教育制度)30 
experience Time Lag (时差)15 
Living in a foreign country (在国外生活)60 
 YOUR SCORE

 


大家可以测试一下得分。150分以下,算是压力较小,150-300分,有50%的机会在两年内出现某种因压力而产生的健康问题,300分以上,80%的几率在两年内生病。

450分以上,恭喜你,你是一位跨文化宣教士了,请在两年内burnout.


最近几年,我随时测试,几乎随时都在400分以上。现在的我处于崩溃边缘——易怒,消化不良,睡眠不足,记忆力减退……

宣教士如何控制压力?

  • 预先计划可能遇到压力
  • 多休息,多睡觉
  • 祷告
  • 解决压力源,而不是逃避。

(下次再详细讨论)。

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