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Acts 1:12-26 预备

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2017-07-01 Eddy 轻轨战舰之EddyEmma

使徒行传 1:12-26 预备新教会的诞生

 

12 有一座山,名叫橄榄山,离耶路撒冷不远,约有安息日可走的路程。当下,门徒从那里回耶路撒冷去,

 12Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is nearJerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away.

 13 进了城,就上了所住的一间楼房;在那里有彼得、约翰、雅各、安得烈、腓力、多马、巴多罗买、马太、亚勒腓的儿子雅各、奋锐党的西门,和雅各的儿子(或作:兄弟)犹大。

 13And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they werestaying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomewand Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the sonof James.

 14 这些人同着几个妇人和耶稣的母亲马利亚,并耶稣的弟兄,都同心合意的恒切祷告。

 14All these with one accord were devoting themselves to prayer, together with thewomen and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 

 

 15 那时,有许多人聚会,约有一百二十名,彼得就在弟兄中间站起来,说:

 15In those days Peter stood up among the brothers (the company of persons was inall about 120) and said,

 16 弟兄们!圣灵藉大卫的口,在圣经上预言领人捉拿耶稣的犹大,这话是必须应验的。

 16“Brothers, the Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spokebeforehand by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who became a guide to thosewho arrested Jesus.

 17 他本来列在我们数中,并且在使徒的职任上得了一分。

 17For he was numbered among us and was allotted his share in this ministry.”

 18 这人用他作恶的工价买了一块田,以后身子仆倒,肚腹崩裂,肠子都流出来。

 18(Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness, and fallingheadlong4  he burst open in the middleand all his bowels gushed out.

 19 住在耶路撒冷的众人都知道这事,所以按着他们那里的话给那块田起名叫亚革大马,就是血田的意思。

 19And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the field wascalled in their own language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)

 20 因为诗篇上写着,说:愿他的住处变为荒场,无人在内居住;又说:愿别人得他的职分。

 20“For it is written in the Book of Psalms,

 “‘May his camp become desolate,

and let there be no one to dwell in it’;

and

 “‘Let another take his office.’

 

 21 所以,主耶稣在我们中间始终出入的时候,

 21So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the LordJesus went in and out among us,

 22 就是从约翰施洗起,直到主离开我们被接上升的日子为止,必须从那常与我们作伴的人中立一位与我们同作耶稣复活的见證。

 22beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up fromus—one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection.”

 23 于是选举两个人,就是那叫作巴撒巴,又称呼犹士都的约瑟,和马提亚。

 23And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus,and Matthias.

 24 众人就祷告说:主阿,你知道万人的心,求你从这两个人中,指明你所拣选的是谁,叫他得这使徒的位分。这位分犹大已经丢弃,往自己的地方去了。

 24And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show whichone of these two you have chosen

 25 见上节

 25to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turnedaside to go to his own place.”

 26 于是众人为他们摇籤,摇出马提亚来;他就和十一个使徒同列。

 26And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numberedwith the eleven apostles.

 

 

在CIU读书的神学生有一个普遍的问题,就是不容易委身在一个教会里。他们来神学院读书之前,都在各自的教会里积极的参与服侍,对自己原来的教会认同度很高。有些人甚至是牧师或者有经验的宣教士,或者是宣教士的子女们。

 

所以,他们来了神学院之后,按照学校的规定有一个学期的时间可以到处看看,寻找合适的教会。但是从第二学期开始,他们就应当找一个教会委身下来。

 

这样做并不是说就不能改变委身的教会了。现代人的职业流动性非常大,当代美国的基督徒因为搬家、换工作地点等原因,一生平均要更换3-4个教会。但是,我们很多的基督徒是为了逃避耶稣基督给教会的使命而在不同的教会之间流浪,不愿意在教会中参与服侍。有的时候他们躲藏在大教会中,每次去身边都坐着不认识的陌生人,参加完礼拜就离开了,心里满足地觉得自己还是遵守了主的教训,每周都去了教会。他们不愿意在小的教会中,在所有人相互认识的环境中彼此服侍,或者接受教会领袖们的牧养。

 

但是我相信耶稣基督对我们每个基督徒的命令,都是委身在一个地方教会中,接受神通过教会给我们的带领和牧养,并在地方教会中使用自己的恩赐,建立耶稣基督的身体。

 

Emma和我来哥伦比亚之后,我们只有第一个月没有车的时候,跟着不同的朋友去访问了大概三、四个教会。然后,我们就委身在哥伦比亚最大的浸信会教会之一——Shandon Baptist Church,待了两年。这个教会非常大,有好几千人,但是白人黑人各种肤色的人都有。我们参与在它的主日学小组中,周三晚上或者周四早上也参与各种查经班,我参加诗班每周三排练,周日献唱,还有各种外出演出交流活动。在事工上,哥伦比亚有很多针对国际学生和访问学者的宣教事工,我们和各个机构的同工也很熟,比如IFM的Loui & Cathy Pappas差不多算是David在美国的爷爷奶奶。但是,出于委身的考虑,也出于我们自己时间有限,主要的任务是在神学院接受装备,所以我们的服侍只有一个:周日下午的Shandon Baptist Church 的国际学生查经班。这个服侍一直坚持了3年,直到我们毕业离开为止。我的实习导师也是教会负责宣教的老牧师Jerry Long,我们每月都要见面交谈。

 

但是在Shandon两年之后,我有一次在一个教会分享中国的事工,遇到一位刚从印度回来的宣教士。他邀请我参加他正在预备要建立的一个新的教会的核心小组(core group)。于是我们就开始和一群具有共同想法的基督徒每周四一起聚会祷告,直到一年之后在main Street建立了哥伦比亚长老会教会。这就是Emma和我在这里读书期间的教会委身经历。我们参加了两个教会,一个是长老会,一个是浸信会;一个是大教会,一个是很小的刚刚建立的教会。

 

这些经验都会为我将来的服侍提供很多的帮助。但是,今天的经文主要涉及到的是一个新教会建立前的预备工作。从使徒行传1章12-26节看,使徒们在预备世界上第一个教会的建立时,按照神的带领,做了三件很重要的事情。

 

首先,他们按照耶稣的命令,从耶路撒冷城外的橄榄山来到了城内。

 

12 有一座山,名叫橄榄山,离耶路撒冷不远,约有安息日可走的路程。当下,门徒从那里回耶路撒冷去,

 12Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is nearJerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away.

 

橄榄山离城只有约安息日可走的路程。所谓安息日可走的路程,是犹太人根据律法的规定设定的一个距离,安息日不能工作,也不能出远门。所以,法利赛人规定,走不超过2000肘的距离,也就是差不多5-6百米的距离,是不违反律法的。

 

建立一个新的教会需要选择地点。我们可以想一想,教会应当建立在什么地点?在人多的地方好还是人少的地方好?大城市里好还是在乡下好?

 

从使徒行传看,当时的使徒们的宣教策略都是在中心城市建立教会,然后辐射到周边的城镇和乡村。这个策略在现在的世代也是一个重要的宣教策略。

 

像北京、上海这样的大城市,汇集了全国各地来的人,也包括中国所有的少数民族。如果在这些中心城市里建立了一个有影响力的教会,我们就可以培训各种民族的宣教士,并借着他们回家探亲、结婚、过春节等等,将福音带回到他们的家乡去。

 

想象一下,即使是500米之外的橄榄山,也不是神认可建立教会的地点。使徒们必须回到耶路撒冷,在那里预备合适的地点,准备迎接新教会的到来。这一点在第二章里,在我们下一次讲道的时候就会显得十分明显。

 

OK,重庆目前最有影响力的家庭教会之一,名字叫“橄榄山教会”,名字没错,地点在市中心。

 

一个新教会的建立,除了地点的选择之外,还需要一个核心小组同心合意的祷告。

 

13 进了城,就上了所住的一间楼房;在那里有彼得、约翰、雅各、安得烈、腓力、多马、巴多罗买、马太、亚勒腓的儿子雅各、奋锐党的西门,和雅各的儿子(或作:兄弟)犹大。

 13And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they werestaying, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomewand Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus and Simon the Zealot and Judas the sonof James.

 14 这些人同着几个妇人和耶稣的母亲马利亚,并耶稣的弟兄,都同心合意的恒切祷告。

 14All these with one accord were devoting themselves to prayer, together with thewomen and Mary the mother of Jesus, and his brothers.3 

路加在这里列出了三个不同的群体:剩下的十一位使徒;跟随耶稣,在祷告和经济上支持耶稣宣教的几个妇女,他们也是耶稣最先显现的那群妇女;耶稣的妈妈,以及他的弟兄。似乎耶稣复活之后,也向自己的弟兄显现,并让他们完全相信了自己是神的儿子,复活的基督的身份。因此,耶稣的家人也参与到预备第一个教会建立的祷告事工中。

 

这群人的祷告有两个特点,第一是同心合意(with one accord),第二是恒切(were devoting themselves to)。

 

哪怕是耶稣生前,门徒们也不是完全同心合意,约翰和雅各曾经向耶稣提出将来要坐在他的左右手,引起了其他人的严重不满。而耶稣的家人则更是完全不信他。在约翰福音里记载他们嘲笑他,说你如果真的是先知,去耶路撒冷显摆去吧,把神迹行在众人面前,我们就信你。而在马可福音里,他们听说耶稣到了加利利一带,就来找他,因为他们认为耶稣已经疯了。

 

现在,他们愿意同心合意的祷告,这是新的教会诞生的重要推动力。事实上,任何教会的复兴都是从同心合意的恒切祷告开始的。

美国历史上最大的属灵复兴之一,始于一个6个人开始的祷告会。这个祷告会第一次聚会在12 noon on September 23, 1857,地点是纽约一间位于FultonStreet的陈旧的教会。

 

He entered an empty room, pulled out hispocket watch and sat down to wait. The placard outside read: “Prayer Meetingfrom 12 to 1 o’clock—Stop 5, 10, or 20 minutes, or the whole hour, as your timeadmits.” It looked like no one had the time. As the minutes ticked by, thesolitary waiter wondered if it were all a mistake. For some three months he hadbeen visiting boarding houses, shops, and offices, inviting people to theeighty-eight-year-old Old Dutch North Church at Fulton and Williams streets.The church had fallen on slim days. Old families had moved away. The businessneighborhood was teeming with a floating population of immigrants and laborers.Other churches had gotten out. Many thought that Old Dutch should throw in thetowel. But the trustees determined on a last ditch stand. They decided to hirea lay missionary to conduct a visitation program. The man they picked wasJeremiah C. Lanphier, a merchant who had no experience whatsoever in churchvisitation work. At forty-nine Lanphier gave up his trade position to knock ondoors for a salary of less than $1,000 a year. The going was slow. A fewfamilies came. But often Lanphier returned to his room in the church consistoryweary and discouraged. At such time he “spread out his sorrows before theLord.” And he never failed to draw new strength from his time of prayer. Whilegoing his rounds of visitation, the idea occurred to him that businessmen mightlike to get away for a short period of prayer once a week while offices wereclosed at noon. With permission of church officials Lanphier passed outhandbills and put up the placard. When the day of the first meeting came, hewas the only one on hand for it.

Six Come to Pray He waited ten minutes,then ten more. The minute hand of his watch pointed to 12:30 when at last heheard a step on the stairs. One man came in, then another and another untilthere were six. After a few minutes of prayer the meeting was dismissed withthe decision that another meeting would be held the following Wednesday. Thatsmall meeting was in no way extraordinary. There was no great outpouring of theSpirit of God. Lanphier had no way of knowing that it was the beginning of agreat national revival which would sweep an estimated one million persons intothe kingdom of God. Looking back, historians can see that conditions were ripefor revival. The Revival of 1800 began a golden age of religious interest. Butby 1843 a nation intent upon getting and spending had lost interest inreligion. The West had opened up. Gold was discovered in California. Railroadbuilding was a craze. The slavery issue was hot. Fortunes ballooned. Faithdiminished. Lanphier did not know much about such things. All he knew was thatmen stood in need of prayer. Twenty men came to his second noon-hour meeting.The following Wednesday, forty. Lanphier decided to make the meeting a dailyevent in a larger room. That very week—on Wednesday, October 14— the nation wasstaggered by the worst financial panic in its history. Banks closed, men wereout of work, families went hungry. The crash no doubt had something to do withthe astonishing growth of Lanphier’s noon meeting (by now called “the FultonStreet prayer meeting”). In a short time the Fulton Street meeting had takenover the whole building with crowds of more than 3,000.

最后1百万人信主,站了全国人口的3%。地点是纽约!!!!!!!

 

有了正确的地点,有了同心合意恒切的祷告,新的教会还需要预备什么条件?无私的团队。

少了一个犹大,剩下11个人不好吗?彼得偏偏站起来说,

 

圣灵借着大卫的口,已经早已预言犹大要背叛耶稣,带着人来抓耶稣。这句话是必须应验的。但是,他本来是个使徒,在我们建立教会的服侍上有份。现在缺了这么一个人,我们的团队就不完整了。因此,我们应当考虑补充一个使徒。

 

彼得还引用了两句诗篇里的话来证明:

(69:25) 愿他的住处变为荒场,无人在内居住

(109:8)愿别人得他的职分。

 

因为这两句话比较难懂,所以路加还特地解释了一下犹大的结局:

18 这人用他作恶的工价买了一块田,以后身子仆倒,肚腹崩裂,肠子都流出来。

 18(Now this man acquired a field with the reward of his wickedness, and fallingheadlong he burst open in the middle and all his bowels gushed out.

 19 住在耶路撒冷的众人都知道这事,所以按着他们那里的话给那块田起名叫亚革大马,就是血田的意思。

 19And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the field wascalled in their own language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)

 

18-19节不是彼得说的话,而是路加插入的注释。犹大在出卖耶稣之后,跳崖自杀而死。

 

而彼得说,他的职分需要有人接替。那么,什么样的人有资格接替使徒的职分呢?

 

21 所以,主耶稣在我们中间始终出入的时候,

 21So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the LordJesus went in and out among us,

 22 就是从约翰施洗起,直到主离开我们被接上升的日子为止,必须从那常与我们作伴的人中立一位与我们同作耶稣复活的见證。

 22beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up fromus—one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection.”

 

彼得明确地表示,使徒的资格是从施洗约翰为耶稣施洗直到耶稣升天为止,常与我们作伴的人。这个资格体现的是福音的连续性,表明使徒所传的福音和所作的见证都是从耶稣基督而来的。

 

这一点即使到现在也非常重要。我们必须确保我们所传的福音不是我们自己发明出来的,而是从耶稣基督开始传下来的信息。

 

同时,我们可以看到,任何在使徒行传1章的语境下自称为使徒的人,都是骗子。

 

23 于是选举两个人,就是那叫作巴撒巴,又称呼犹士都的约瑟,和马提亚。

 23And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was also called Justus,and Matthias.

 24 众人就祷告说:主阿,你知道万人的心,求你从这两个人中,指明你所拣选的是谁,叫他得这使徒的位分。这位分犹大已经丢弃,往自己的地方去了。

 24And they prayed and said, “You, Lord, who know the hearts of all, show whichone of these two you have chosen

 25 见上节

 25to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turnedaside to go to his own place.”

 26 于是众人为他们摇籤,摇出马提亚来;他就和十一个使徒同列。

 26And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numberedwith the eleven apostles.

 

摇籤的方式是用两块石头,写上两个人的名字。然后放在瓶子里摇或者把瓶子倒过来。哪个石头出来了,就是神所选择的。

 

我们现在可不可以用这个方法来确定什么事情?这就涉及到重要的解释圣经的原则问题。

首先,这个摇签的事情是记录在一个叙事中间,并不是神直接命令我们应当在怎样的情况之下摇签。

 

其次,我们需要看看,在新约时代这种做法是不是经常发生,以至于成为教会的一个传统做法。

 

从我们搜索新约圣经来看,这只是一个个案,没有其他教会用摇签决定某事的记载。其次,新约里没有任何地方给出了我们要用摇签来决定某事的直接命令。

 

因此,对于这样的事情,我们需要非常慎重。

 

不过,我们可以从这个故事中发现一个重要的属灵原则:

众人在决定重大事情之前,非常慎重地祷告,并请神亲自指明他要拣选的人。这是我们应当效法的原则。

 

结论:新教会的预备

1、地点

2、祷告

3、团队的合一

 

【应用和呼召】


 
 
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